Trends in Social Sciences <p>Trends in Social Sciences (TSS) is a peer-reviewed, open-access e-journal published by the Asian Scholar Network (ASN) three times a year (February, June, &amp; October). The main aim of this scholarly journal is to develop knowledge related to a wide range of fields in Social Sciences and Humanities, which includes but not limited to language, linguistics, education, literature, communication, law, economy, culture, and politics. It publishes original theoretical works, research reports, literature reviews, book reviews, and letters to editor. The manuscripts can be written in English, Malay or Arabic.</p> en-US (Al-Smadi, O.) (Rahman, M.F.) Thu, 20 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0100 OJS 60 THE USE OF READING STRATEGIES AMONG MALAYSIAN ESL UNDERGRADUATES WHEN READING PRINT AND HYPERTEXT <p><em>This study explores the reading strategies used by Malaysian ESL undergraduates when reading print and hypertext materials. For this purpose, the theoretical framework of metacognition was employed. A mixed-method approach was adopted whereby two questionnaires – Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI) and Online Survey of Reading Strategies (OSORS) were used to quantitatively analyse the learners’ awareness of the metacognitive reading strategies and the qualitative data were gathered using verbal protocols. This study aimed to differentiate the learners’ use of strategies when they engage in reading tasks of two different media – traditional print reading as well as hypertext materials. Five undergraduates from the TESOL programme at a Malaysian private university were asked to read biographies, a form of expository text to analyse their reading strategies. The data gathered showed that the use of reading strategies was similar in terms of the proposed metacognitive strategies which are categorised into the three subscales; Global, Problem-Solving, and Support strategies with varying degrees dependent on the medium of reading. The study also found higher frequency of strategy use when the learners read online, although they employed Problem-Solving strategies significantly higher than strategies of other subscales. This led to the discovery of reading difficulties among themselves, in terms of textual display, vision problems, and restricted access to materials.</em></p> Nur Amalina Awang, Hishamuddin Salim ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Jun 2019 08:18:24 +0100 THE USE OF MIND MAPPING STRATEGY TO IMPROVE SPEAKING COMPETENCY AMONG EFL PRIMARY SCHOOL STUDENTS <p><em>The goal of learning the English language is the ability to communicate in the language. Thus, teaching and learning of speaking is an indisputable requirement in the English Language as a foreign language classroom. However, EFL </em><em>students have problems with spoken English, may be as a result of poor motivation to speak the language, language anxiety, or lack of effective teaching and learning strategies.</em><em> In order to broaden the understanding of the way to improve speaking competency among EFL students, this conceptual paper attempts to </em><em>examine the application of the mind mapping strategy to improve speaking competency among EFL primary school students through a critical analysis of the related literature by addressing the following research questions; </em><em>what are the problems and difficulties that EFL students face while they are speaking in the classroom? And to what extent does the use of mind mapping strategy help to improve EFL students’ speaking skills in the classroom? Based on embedding theories and previous studies concerning the use of mind mapping strategy in speaking activities, this paper offers great practical guidance on the contextualization of the mind mapping strategy and recommendations for its future as an effective strategy to improve speaking’ competency in the classroom. </em></p> Ansar AlWadi, Nur Salina Ismail ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Jun 2019 08:19:40 +0100 NON-ENGLISH MAJOR STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS TOWARDS THE USE OF ENGLISH IN EVERYDAY COMMUNICATION <p><em>This paper explores about the non-English major students’ perceptions of the use of English in everyday communication. Students who are majoring in the English field has a different perception of the use of English in everyday communication compared to non-English major students. As for the English major students, communicating in English may not be a problem for them. Nevertheless, for the non-English major students, they might face some difficulties to use English as a medium to communicate in their daily life. Hence, it has led to the existence of this study. The main focus of the study is to identify the perceptions of the non-English major students towards the use of English in everyday communication, to find out to what extent the non-English major students were motivated to use and learn English and to find out to what extent the non-English major students were motivated to use and learn English. A sample of 100 respondents A sample of 100 respondents from the non-English major students in UniSZA was used for the study. The data were collected by using Google Form and the analysis was done by using SPSS. The findings revealed most of the respondents have positive perceptions and motivation towards the use of English in everyday communication. The researcher recommends that future research should expand the size of sampling and try to use either qualitative or mix method research design.</em></p> Nur Adilah Mohd Arshad, Siti Zanariah Yusoff ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Jun 2019 08:20:14 +0100 أدوات الأثاث ودلالاتها في الحديث النبوي [FURNITURE TOOLS AND ITS SEMANTICS IN HADITH NABAWI] <p><strong>الملخص</strong></p> <p>إنّ هذه المقالة تسلط الضوءعلى أدوات الأثاث التي كانت تستعمل في عهد النبوة وهي أدوات أولية بسيطة تخلو من الأدوات المعقدة والأجهزة بالمعنى الحديث لتناسب مع تلك الحقبة البعيدة من الزمن. ومن ثمّ استنبطنا الدلالات المتنوعة بحسب سياق الأحاديث التي وردت فيها، وهي في عمومها من ألفاظ الحياة العامة؛ لأنها يدل على أشياء يكثر تردادها على ألسنة العامة؛ لكثرة استعمالها والحاجة إليها يومياً، إذ يضطر الإنسان إلى ذكرها كثيراً في البيت وعند بعض أصحاب الحِرَف، وهي قرينة الحياة الإجتماعية تتصل بكل الشعوب عبر مراحل التاريخ المختلفة، وتدخل كذلك ضمن ألفاظ الحضارة التي يتداولها العامة في حديثهم اليومي حين يجري الحديث على الألسنة للتعبير عن أدوات مادية تكثر الحاجة إليها.</p> <p>الكلمات المفتاحية: دلالات الاثاث، أدوات الاثاث، حديث نبوي، التعبيرالنبوي.</p> <p><br><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>This article highlights furniture tools that are used in the era of prophecy. They are simple primary tools without the complex tools and the devices in the modern sense to fit with that distant period of time, then we have drawn various semantics according to the context of the Hadith that are mentioned in it in general terms of public life; because it indicates things that are frequently repeated in public; for their frequent use and daily need, as a person is forced to mention it frequently in the house and at some of the craftsmen, which is the presumption of social life related to all peoples through different stages of history, it is also included in the terms of civilization, which are discussed by the public in their daily conversation when talking in tongues to express the much needed material tools.</p> Daad Younus Hussein Abdullah, Zulazhan Ab. Halim, Mohd Fauzi Abdul Hamid ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Jun 2019 08:20:53 +0100 ARABIC VOCABULARY NEEDED BY MALAY LEARNERS OF ARABIC AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE <p><strong>ملخص</strong></p> <p><em>إتقان المفردات العربية ليست مهمة سهلة وخاصة لمتعلمي اللغة العربية الناطقين بغيرها، لأن اللغة العربية غنية جدا من حيث المفردات، والمصطلحات، والمترادفات، وهذا يجعل اختيار الكلمة والفهمها صعبا لمتعلمي اللغة العربية الناطقين بغيرها؛ لذا يهدف هذا البحث إلى تحديد المفردات العربية التي يحتاجها متعلمو اللغة العربية من الناطقين بلغات أخرى، وتصميم نموذج لمعجم الثلاثي (عربية، إنجليزية، ملايوية) بأسلوب سهل, يناسب المتعلم المبتدئ الناطق بلغات أخرى؛ ويتكون مجتمع البحث من مجموعة من الطلاب الناطقين بغير العربية الدارسين في المراحل العليا (ماجستير ودكتوراه) في الجامعة الإسلامية بالمدينة المنورة عام 1436هـ؛ وأمّا عينة اللغوية فتكونت من المفردات المختارة الواردة في قائمة مكة للمفردات الشائعة من حرف الهمزة إلى حرف الجيم، وبلغ عددها (1711) كلمة شائعة اتفق عليها أغلبية من شارك في تحرير الاستبانة بنسبة (80 %) فأكثر . استخدم الباحثون المنهج الوصفي التحليلي معتمدين على أداة الاستبانة, وبعد تحليل النتائج عن الحزمة الإحصائية (SPSS), توصلت الدراسة إلى المفردات التي يحتاجها متعلمو اللغة العربية الناطقون بلغات أخرى تضمنت (1076) كلمةث، ثم صمّموا الباحثون معجم مصور لمتعلمي اللغة العربية الناطقين بلغات أخرى تضمنت ثلاثية اللغة (عربي إنجليزي ملايوي).</em></p> <p><em>الكلمات المفتاحية: اللغة العربية، اكتساب اللغة الأجنبية ، اللغة الملايويية، المعجم الثلاثي، المفردات.</em></p> <p><br><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><em>Mastering Arabic vocabulary is not an easy task especially for non-native learners of Arabic. Moreover, the Arabic language is very rich in terms of vocabulary, terminologies, synonymous and binomials; thus, making word choice and comprehension difficult for non-native learners. Therefore, this study aims to examine the common Arabic words needed by Arabic as a foreign language (AFL) learners to communicate, and consequently design a model that can be adopted in planning a comprehensible multilingual dictionary of Arabic, English and Malay. This study employed a descriptive method of analysing quantitative research using (SPSS). A close-ended questionnaire was devised which consists of selected common Arabic vocabulary from the letter 'Alif' to the letter 'Jeem', to gain participants’ insights on the words’ importance and width of use among non-native speakers of Arabic. The participants were 85 postgraduate learners of Arabic who were also English speakers from the University of Madinah Saudi Arabia. Using SPSS, the data analysed resulted in a total of 1711common words that were agreed by majority of the participants. After further analysis of the data, the researchers found that 1071 words out of 1711 words were determined as common words needed by beginners of AFL learners.Finally,a tri-lingual dictionary (Arabic, English, Malay) was formed based on those common words for the AFL learners.</em></p> Aliyu Abdullahi, Maryam Siyaj Maliki, Nurazan binti Mohamad Rouyan, Siti Salwa Mohd Noor, Zulazhan Ab. Halim, Ali Abdul Mohsen Elhudaibiy, Faiz Muh'd Bashir ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Jun 2019 08:22:00 +0100 PERSEPSI PELAJAR SEKOLAH MENENGAH TERHADAP PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ARAB [PERCEPTION OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS TOWARDS THE LEARNING OF ARABIC LANGUANGE] <p>Pembelajaran dan Pengajaran Bahasa kedua dalam sistem pendidikan Malaysia adalah salah satu perkara yang paling penting dalam penyebaran bahasa Arab. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji pandangan pelajar sekolah menengah dalam mempelajari bahasa Arab. Kajian ini juga mengenal pasti minat pelajar untuk belajar bahasa Arab dan membincangkan kepentingan minat dalam mempelajari bahasa Arab. Di samping itu, kajian ini mengenal pasti motivasi yang mempengaruhi pelajar dalam mempelajari bahasa Arab. Kajian ini menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif dalam menganalisis soal selidik yang diedarkan. Kajian ini menganalisis soal selidik untuk mendapatkan pandangan pelajar terhadap pembelajaran Bahasa Arab. Soal selidik digunakan untuk mengumpulkan data. Soal selidik ini terbahagi kepada empat bahagian. Bahagian pertama mengenai maklumat demografi, bahagian kedua, pandangan pelajar terhadap pembelajaran bahasa Arab, ketiga minat para pelajar dalam mempelajari bahasa Arab dan motivasi para pelajar untuk mempelajari bahasa Arab. Kajian ini memilih pelajar sekolah menengah daripada tingkatan satu hingga tingkatan tiga daripada Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Kok Lanas. Hasil kajian ini mendapati bahawa kebanyakan pelajar menyedari akan kepentingan mempelajari bahasa Arab. Semoga hasil kajian ini dapat memberikan manfaat dalam pembelajaran dan pengajaran bahasa Arab.</p> Nasywa Muhammad Ariff Bakhtiar, Norasyikin Osman ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Jun 2019 08:22:27 +0100 APLIKASI KAEDAH FUZZY DELPHI DALAM PEMBANGUNAN MODUL PEMBELAJARAN KOSA KATA BAHASA ARAB BERASASKAN ANIMASI [THE APPLICATION OF FUZZY DELPHI METHOD IN DEVELOPING ANIMATION BASED VOCABULARY LEARNING MODULE] <p><em>Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan kesepakatan pakar bahasa Arab tentang reka bentuk modul pembelajaran kosa kata bahasa Arab berasaskan animasi bagi membantu murid sekolah rendah mempelajari kosa kata baharu, memahami makna, mengingat dan dapat mengaplikasikannya dalam ayat menggunakan aplikasi kaedah Fuzzy Delphi. Objektif kajian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan pandangan dan konsensus pakar terhadap empat aspek utama dalam pembangunan modul pembelajaran kosa kata bahasa Arab berasaskan animasi; iaitu i) komponen utama modul pembelajaran kosa kata; ii) reka bentuk modul dari aspek strategi persembahan, aktiviti, latihan dan penilaian; iii) strategi persembahan kosa kata dalam modul; dan iv) aplikasi prinsip multimedia. Teknik Fuzzy Delphi (FDM) digunakan bagi mendapatkan konsensus pakar dengan mengedarkan soal selidik kepada 19 orang pakar yang terdiri daripada tiga kategori; iaitu pakar bahasa Arab, pakar teknologi pendidikan dan juga pakar dalam pembinaan modul. Instrumen soal selidik terdiri 4 bahagian merangkumi 54 item. Dapatan kajian terhadap konsensus pakar menunjukkan 52 item kajian mempunyai nilai purata dan penilaian pakar adalah kurang dari nilai threshold (d) <u>&lt;</u> 0.2 dan peratus persetujuan pakar juga melebihi nilai 75%. Manakala 2 item yang tidak mendapat peratus persetujuan pakar iaitu kurang daripada nilai 75% ditolak. Item-item yang telah mendapat konsensus pakar telah disaring dengan membuang atau menambah item mengikut cadangan pakar. </em></p> Norhayati Che Hat, Muhammad Azhar Zailaini, Zaharah Hussin ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Jun 2019 08:23:24 +0100 GLOBAL ISSUES <p><em>Global issues are considered to be an up-to-date branch in the field of language teaching. By integrating global issues in classroom instruction, students will be exposed to a global perspective. Basically, global education is imperative to the development of skills, knowledge, and attitudes of students who need to recognize a lot of things around them through the global education approach while studying English in classrooms. This paper reviewed the importance of integrating education which focuses on global issues and problems into ELT as a means of guiding students to have knowledge about world issues and becoming responsible world citizens. The literature reveals that most academic programmes nowadays include global education which is regarded as an important feature of their official curriculum. Additionally, teachers' education about environmental problems should be improved to increase students' awareness and knowledge about local and global environmental issues. Due to the importance of teaching global issues, it is recommended that foreign-language instructors integrate global issues and global education into their teaching in a variety of ways.</em></p> Lamis Abdulkarim Al-Shuga'a, Kamariah Yunus, Ibrahim Bashir, Ali Ratib Alawamreh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Jun 2019 08:23:50 +0100 KONSEP PEMINJAMAN KOSA KATA: SUATU TINJAUAN TERHADAP SOROTON LITERATUR [THE CONCEPT OF LOANWORD: AN OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE] <p><em>Makalah ini membincangkan konsep dan definisi peminjaman kosa kata dalam kajian lepas. Peminjaman kosa kata atau juga disebut sebagai penyerapan kosa kata merupakan istilah yang sering digunakan dalam kajian kosa kata asing dalam bahasa Melayu. Terdapat pelbagai pandangan dalam kalangan ahli linguistik terhadap penggunaan istilah yang merujuk kepada kemasukan kosa kata asing ke dalam bahasa ibunda. Sehubungan dengan itu, kajian ini menghuraikan konsep dan definisi peminjaman dan batas peminjaman secara terperinci. Selain itu, pengaruh ‘substratum’ dan pertukaran kod turut dijelaskan kerana wujud&nbsp; kekeliruan dan pertindanan antara peminjaman, pengaruh ’substratum’ dan pertukaran kod dalam masyarakat bilingual dan multilingual. Huraian peminjaman serta contoh kosa kata tertumpu kepada peminjaman kosa kata asing dalam bahasa Melayu seperti kosa kata Sanskrit, Arab, dan Inggeris. Hasil penelitian mendapati istilah peminjaman kosa kata lebih sesuai digunakan kerana sesuatu kata yang dipinjam tidak akan menjadi milik sesuatu bahasa yang meminjam walaupun kata tersebut telah lama digunakan sehingga masyarakat beranggapan kata tersebut merupakan kata asli dalam bahasa mereka</em>.</p> Nazilah Mohamad, Karim Harun ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Jun 2019 08:24:18 +0100