This study seeks to identify the deictic expressions utilized in Langston Hughes’ poetic discourse and to explore their ideological inferences. Data were generated from thirty purposively selected Hughes’ poems, which were analysed using content analysis and critical discourse analysis. Critical race theory underpinned the theoretical framework of the study whilst Fairclough and Van Dijk’s CDAs were particularly employed as an analytic lens in analysing the data. The analysis of data revealed that Hughes has extensively used spatial, temporal, personal, social and discourse deictic expressions in order to voice ideologies deeply related to racial segregation, oppression and discrimination. These ideologies can be best seen as articulation of the power relations between Whites and Blacks. The findings also show that inclusive personal type of deixis contributes to Hughes’ manipulation of discourse, which helps influencing and supporting Blacks. It is hoped that this study adds novel insights into the interpretation of Hughes’ poetic discourse and highlights the power relations between Whites and Blacks in America.
Keywords: Langston Hughes, deictic expressions, ideological inferences, power relations, critical studies.
Cite as: Al-Ramahi, R.A.O. & Rashid, R.A. (2020). The deictic expressions and their ideological inferences in Langston Hughes’ poetic discourse. Journal of Qualitative Social Sciences, 2(2), 11-24.